NUT, or garbanzo beans - CICER ARIETINUM
Use. In the food used mainly belosemennye class soups, porridges, but have to cook much longer than lentils, and peas. The roasted seeds taste similar to nuts. In seeds of 20-29% protein, 4-7% fat, 50-60% carbohydrates. In the stems and leaves of this culture has a significant amount of oxalic and malic acids, which does not use straw and green material for animal feed, except for sheep.
Distribution. Chickpeas are grown in more than 30 countries around the world on an area of 8.6 million hectares. The main growing region - tropical and subtropical Asia (90% of global area). Cultured chick over large areas in India, China and Pakistan. On relatively small areas of this crop is grown in Africa (Ethiopia, Morocco, Tunisia), the Americas (Mexico, Colombia). The average yield of seeds - 0.6-0.8 t / ha.
Systematics. Genus Cicer L. together 27 species growing in the Small, Middle and Central Asia, the Mediterranean countries of Europe and Africa. The field is cultivated only kind of agriculture Cicer arietinum L, whose homeland of South West Africa.
Description of the plant. This is an annual plant, stems erect, 20-70 cm tall, covered with glandular hairs. Leaves imparipinnate. Pods are short, swollen, 1-3-seed. The seeds are similar to sheep's head or owls, have tuberculate-rough surface, the color from yellow to black. Weight of 1000 seeds depending on the variety ranges from 1 50 to 300 g.
Nut - self-pollinating plant, pollination takes place in the phase of the closed flower, but note the cases and cross-pollination.
Biological features. Vegetation period ranges from 90-110 days for ripening varieties to 150-220 days for late-.
Nut - the culture of a thermophilic than peas and lentils. The seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 3-5 ° C, and seedlings can withstand brief frosts down to 8-11 ° C. Increased demands on the heat makes in bloom - forming pods, the optimum temperature in this period is 24-28 ° C. Maturation of chick goes better when the air temperature at night is not lower than 14-15 °.
Nut transfer of air and soil drought, but can not stand waterlogging. During prolonged rainy weather had delayed flowering, there are diseases (askohitoz, Fusarium). Flowering is best when relative humidity 60%.
Nut - the culture of a long day.
Requirements for the soil. Thrive in any soil. It is well possible as to the lungs, and in alkaline soils. In India it is cultivated on chernozem, red-, gray alluvial soils with a pH of 6-8.
Features of rotation. By predecessors chickpeas demanders, while at the same time is a good precursor for many of cereal and root crops. Thus, in India it crops alternated with rice, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, cotton. Responds well to early deep autumn plowing. In weed control and for accumulation and storage of moisture in the dry subtropics are effective fall winter fallow cultivation. In tropical areas, soil treatment under chickpea is about the same as for other legumes. In India, the first deep processing is carried out at the end of the rainy season, the second - after the last rain. The number of surface treatments, depending on the density of soil and debris fields ranges from 4 to 6.
Fertilizers. On chernozem and dark chestnut soils, the crop responds well to phosphorus fertilizer. Increased demand for potash is observed when cultivating it on light soils. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizer should be made the main plowing, depending on their reserves in the soil at a dose of 40-60 kg / ha of active substance (in the village.). On poor soils have a positive effect of nitrogen fertilizers, which are recommended to make presowing cultivation or fertilizer in the early growing season at a dose of 30-45 kg / ha in the village.
Sowing / planting. In the subtropics chickpea crop is carried out in the early stages in the tropics of Southeast Asia this crop is cultivated as the wet and the dry season. In India, chickpea crops are widely used in conjunction with other crops (wheat, mustard, sorghum, oilseed flax). It is sown in wide rows or a continuous manner with a width of 45 cm between rows at a depth of 5-7 cm before sowing the seeds treated with molybdenum and nitragin. Sowing in a continuous way a member 0.7-0.9, with wide-- 0.3-0.5 million germinating seeds per 1 hectare, or 120-250 kg / ha.
Caring for sowing / planting. Care of crops begins with rolling annular rollers after sowing. The unit with rollers used light harrows. On weedy areas highly effective use of pre-emergence harrowing and one on shoots. On the wide-sown between the rows of processing Apply 2-3 cultivators.
Harvesting. Chickpeas harvested grain processor, reconstructed at low shear. By the start of harvesting in most of the yellowing of pods per plant. This culture is in some cases, clean and direct harvesting.