PEAS - PISUM SATIVUM and PISUM ARVENSE
Peas are cultivated as food and fodder plant. From dry seeds of soups, purees. Pea flour mixed with flour of cereals and baked bread. The protein content of 22-30%. In the immature pods of peas vegetables 25-30% sugar, vitamins (A, B1, B2, C). Green peas and vegetable varieties of peas are widely used in the canning industry. Seeds of peas, green mass and straw - a high-quality animal feed.
Origin. Peas - the most ancient culture, comes from regions of Asia Minor. Krupnosemennye forms are confined to the second center of origin - Eastern Mediterranean.
Distribution. Pea has a very extensive habitat, it is cultivated in about 60 countries. Globally, agriculture crops of peas to about 10 million hectares. The main crops are concentrated in its Soviet Union, China and India. In the Americas, it is grown in the U.S., Canada, Colombia, Peru, Africa - Ethiopia, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco. Peas grown in almost all European countries. The average yield of seeds in the world is 1.5 tons / ha in the developed countries reaches 3,0-4,5 t / ha.
Systematics. Botanical genus of pea Pisum L. includes several species, of which the most widely used two: Pisum sativum L. - Pea and Pisum arvense L. - Field peas.
Description of the plant. Peas - an annual wintering eggs or plant that has a core, well-developed root. Stem angular, lodging, ranging in length from 20 to 250 cm have shtambovyh forms thickened at the top and do not lodge. Leaves paripinnate, consisting of 1-3 pairs of obovate leaflets. Flowers solitary or paired, in shtambovyh forms up to 4 per spike. Fruit - Bob direct or saber with 3-10 seeds. Weight of 1000 seeds depending on variety - from 120 to 250 g.
Biological features. Peas - the most ripening grain legumes. Vegetation period ranges from 65 to 140 days. Self-pollination occurs in the phase of a closed flower, but in years with hot and dry summer is an open bloom, and there may be cross-pollinated. Phase flowering lasts 10-40 days. Vegetative growth occurs most rapidly from the bud to bloom. The growth of the green mass peaks during fruit formation. Nodules on the roots formed during the formation of leaves on the plant for 8.5. Maximum nitrogen fixation was noted in the period of mass flowering.
Peas - the culture of cold-resistant, early maturing varieties are cultivated to its northern borders of agriculture (68 °. W..) The sum of effective temperatures during the growing season of 1150-1800 ° C. The seeds begin to germinate at 1-2 ° C (sugar varieties - at 4-6 ° C). The optimum temperature during the formation of vegetative organs of 14-16 ° C during the formation of generative organs of 18-20 ° C, for the development of bean seeds and filling 18-22 ° C. Seedlings tolerate short-term freeze to 5-7 ° C, in the later phase of lowering the temperature to minus 2-4 ° C are harmful.
Peas demanding moisture. The greatest demand for water is noted to the phase of formation of the beans. During the germination of the seeds absorb water 100-115%, and the brain sorts - up to 150% of the air-dry weight. Excessive moisture peas tolerate well, but at the same time it has delayed the growing season. The optimum soil moisture should be 70-80% of the HB. In high-yielding pea transpiration ratio 500-1000, which is 2 times larger than that of cereals. Critical period with respect to moisture is during flowering - fruit formation.
Pea - light-requiring long-day culture, with a lack of light there is a strong inhibition of plant growth.
Requirements for the soil. The best soil for peas are chernozem, srednesvyazannye loam and sandy loam with a neutral or near neutral acidity. Of little dense, clay, waterlogged and light sandy soils.
Features of rotation. The best precursors of pea - winter wheat and row crops: corn, beets, potatoes, vegetables and melons. Not recommended to sow peas in pea. Many researchers recommend return to their original field peas in 5-6 years. Crops of this culture are an excellent precursor for many cultures, it is often placed in the rotation between the grains.
Fertilizers. Responsiveness of peas for fertilizers is quite high. The effect of fertilizers depends on the physical and chemical properties of soil and its moisture content, methods and doses of fertilizer. With a yield of 2.0 t / ha of seed peas brings out the soil of 110 kg nitrogen, 32 kg phosphorus and 50 kg of potassium. Nutrients from soil to plants occurs during the growing season. By the beginning of flowering culture absorbs 30-38% of nitrogen, phosphorus and 60-64% 40-53% potassium. In pea nitrogen accumulation at the expense of fixing from the atmosphere, depending on growing conditions varies from 42 to 78% of the total consumption of this element of the environment.
Depending on the specific conditions under peas usually made of 40-60 kg / ha P2O5, 30-50 kg / ha K2O. On poor soils and under adverse conditions and nitrogen fertilizers applied at the rate of 30-45 kg / ha of nitrogen, and the planning of high-yield dose was increased to 60 kg / ha. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizer should be applied in the autumn plowing, nitrogen - presowing cultivation. Peas and responsive to organic fertilizer. But manure is better to use a previous culture in the norm of 15-20 tonnes / ha.
Presowing event. The soil is plowed under peas at 28-30 cm in dry conditions is recommended by moldboardless plowing. Compulsory admission before plowing a stubble. Early fall plowing plowing in the autumn to allow the cultivation of a harrowing 1.2.
Preplant soil is cultivated to a depth of seed placement with simultaneous harrowing. Before sowing, pea soil surface level the loop scheduler and rolled wheels.
Seeds are sorted, leaving for planting the largest faction. Before sowing seeds are treated against pests infect nitragin. Peas recommend sowing in the early stages, both with early spring crops, as this culture hygrophilous, and cold.
Sowing / planting. In the production of continuous use private, closed drills and cross-seeding method. Norma sowing depending on variety and soil and climatic conditions vary from 0.8 to 1.4 million viable seeds per 1 hectare, or 150 to 300 kg / ha. Seeding depth varies from 4-5 to 7-8 cm
Harvesting. Uneven ripening of seeds per plant, polegaemost, rastreskivaemost beans impede mechanized harvesting peas. The best way to clean - separate when the plants turn yellow 70-80% of the beans, and seeds reached 35-40% humidity. For mowing and putting peas in rolls used mowers, reapers legumes. A selection of rolls is carried rebuilt grain harvesters in 2-5 days after cutting at seed moisture of 15-18%. Drum rotation speed of 600-700 rev / min. Single-phase harvesting is used in the steppe, arid regions, where the peas ripen more friendly.
The best way to bring the seeds to the humidity conditioning - solar drying.