Large-wholesale plant seeds of agricultural products and for agricultural

SOYBEAN - GLYCINE HISPIDA

Soybeans - the most common legumes of world importance. The seeds contain an average of 36-42% of valuable protein, consisting of a small amount of globulin and albumin, 19-22% poluvysyhayuschego oil and 30% carbohydrates. The protein is highly digestible, high solubility in water. 1 kg of soybean seeds with 320-450 g protein, 21 g lysine, 4.8 g methionine, 5.3 g cystine and 4.9 g of tryptophan.

favorable combination of nutrient allows the widely cultivated soybeans as food, feed and industrial plant. Soybean meal is used in a variety of forms: from her to give an oil, margarine, soy cheese, milk, flour, confectionery, canned food. Soy milk is recommended for gastric ulcers, kidney disease, Graves' disease, holitsistite. Soybean oil is not only food but also in the soap, the paint industry, get out of it as insecticides, synthetic rubber, glycerin, fatty acids. Soy protein is used in the manufacture of paper, photographic film. Great importance as a food have cake, meal and soybean meal. Soybean oil meal contains 40% protein, 1.4% fat and about 30.0% nitrogen-free extractives (BEV).

Soy is grown for green forage and for silage in mixture with corn. 100 kg of green mass contains 21 feeds. units. and 3.5 kg of protein. In areas where sufficient moisture soybeans are grown as green manure. In

Saharan 48-50 ° with. sh. from legumes like soybeans preference is given to the most valuable protein and oil plants.

Soybeans, like other legumes, has the ability to assimilate nitrogen from the air through symbiosis with rhizobia. In the initial phase of vegetation nitrogen fixation is low, reaching a peak during the flowering and fruit formation, then the activity decreases as it approaches the plant to ripen. The amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixed by soybeans during the growing season ranges from 40 to 180 kg / ha. Nitrogen fixed by approximately 60-65% of its total yield in soybeans. The intensity of nitrogen fixation in soybean crops depends on soil and climatic conditions, the level of agricultural technology, as well as the genetic characteristics of varieties and strains of nodule bacteria.

Distribution. Soybeans grown in more than 60 countries. Homeland soy - South-East Asia. It has long been cultivated in China, India, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and Indonesia. Thanks to the ecological plasticity moved far beyond the original distribution.

According to FAO, in 1988 the world area under soybean was 54.6 million hectares and total production reached 92.3 million tons 73.0% of world land is concentrated in the Americas (40 million ha). In the U.S., soybeans are sown on an area of 23.2 million hectares. In Asia, soybeans are sown on an area of 12.3 million ha, accounting for 22% of the total global area. The relatively small area under this crop are employed in Africa and Europe - 434 and 1025 ha respectively.

Average soybean yields in the world is 1.69 t / ha. The highest yield of seeds produced in Europe - 2.30 t / ha, while the lowest - in Asia and Africa - 1.25 and 1.08 t / ha respectively.

Cost-effectiveness of soy is high: from each hectare of crop with a yield 2.0-2.5 t / ha of seeds are 500-700 rubles. net profit.

largest manufacturer and supplier of soybeans in the world market is the United States. Of gross production 57.1 million tons of approximately 50% of soybeans are processed and consumed in this country for animal husbandry and food industry, and the remainder are shipped to other countries. Importer of soybean in the world market is in countries with intensive livestock development: Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain, Japan, which buy most of the soybean meal entering the world market. Imports are dominated by developed countries and seed meal as a source of cheap and high quality protein for animal husbandry and poultry farming. Developing countries are buying up to 50% of the total import of soybean oil. The largest consumers of soybean oil - India, Pakistan and Iran. Large-wholesale plant seeds of agricultural products and for agricultural

Systematics. Soybeans belong to the genus Glycine L, which brings together dozens of species occurring in the tropics. In one kind of culture enter Glycine hispida Moench, grown on every continent of the globe. Varietal diversity of cultivated soybean in the combined four subspecies (manshurica, chinensis, japonica, indica). Subspecies are distinguished by length of growing season, the structure of the shrub form of leaves and pods, seed size and color.

description of the plant. The root system of the backbone with a coarse, relatively short main root and a large number of long lateral roots that penetrate into the depth of 2.0 m. Fine roots account for about 60% by weight of the entire root system. The main mass of roots in the plow layer. Stem - a solid, nepolegayuschy in height from 25 to 200 cm, length of internodes from 3 to 15 cm, number of lateral shoots from 2 to 5. Leaves alternate, pinnate. The first two primordial leaf - are opposite. Leaves stushennye consist of three leaflets with different shapes: oval, rhombic, ovate, almost round. The flowers are small, Five-, and odorless. Corolla papilionaceous. type, white or violet. Inflorescence - the brush, which is located in the leaf axils. The number of flowers per cluster of 4 to 26. Stamens 10, with 9 of them fused together, one stamen free.

fruit soy - bean. Pods straight, curved, sickle-shaped, flat, pubescent, up to 5 cm, the color from light gray to black. The number of seeds per pod from 1 to 4, usually 3. Number of pods per plant depends on the thickness of standing plants, availability of nutrients and moisture. In the thickened crops to plant produces 10-15 and in sparse crops and fertile soils - 300-400 beans. Lower pods are attached at a height of 3 to 15 cm of soil. In the attachment of the lower thickened crops of beans increased to 17-20 cm and in some cases up to 30 cm of soil. Seeds globose, oval, flat-rounded, oblong-rounded, reniform. Diverse seed color - black, brown, green. Weight of 1000 seeds depending on the variety ranges from 60 to 400, the seed consists of a shell and embryo in which there are two cotyledons and embryonic gemmule with spine, stem and leaves.

biological features. For the duration of vegetative soybeans conventionally divided into ultraskorospelye (80-90 days), early (90-100), medium (110-120), late-(130-150) and very late maturing (over 150 days).

in ontogenesis in soy are the following phases of growth and development: germination (emergence of cotyledons at the soil surface), formation of the first ternate leaves, branching, budding, flowering, formation of bean seed filling and maturing seeds.

flowering and fruit formation within the same plant do not occur simultaneously. In the period of massive growth fruitification ends of the vegetative mass. Soybean - self-pollinating plant. Flowering occurs on the main stem with the advent of 5-14 true leaves. Phase flowering lasts for 15-40 days, in phylogenetically old forms - up to 80-100 days. Period of bean, under favorable conditions continues 18-20 days maturity - 15-25 days.

Soya - the culture of the monsoon climate, has high requirements to ensure that moisture and heat. The sum of active temperatures during the growing season, depending on the varietal characteristics of from 1700 to 3200 °. The need for soybean growing in the warmth from germination of seeds to seedlings, and then to flowering and seed formation, while growing temperature is somewhat reduced. Soybean begins to germinate at 8-10 ° C, but at this temperature seedlings appear after 20-30 days, 14-16 ° C - 7-8 days, and at 20-22 ° C - 4-5 days. Increasing average temperature at the beginning of the growing season to 24-25 ° C leads to some reduction in growth processes, and the temperature 35-37 ° C affects the growth, development and nodulation. The optimum temperature for the period of vegetative growth 18-22 ° C for the formation of reproductive organs - 22-24 °, for flowering - 25-27 °, to form beans - 20-22 ° and maturation - 18-20 ° C.

plants is relatively easy to tolerate spring frosts to 2,5 ° C, autumn frosts to 3,0 ° C do not have a negative effect on seed yield, frost 4,0-4,5 ° C lead to a strong freezing of the leaves, the death of flowers and pods.

Soya - a typical short-day plant. When extending daylight flowering and maturation are delayed, increasing the growing season. When excessive lengthening of daylight hours may not bloom. The maximum flowering occurs at 12 h alternating light and dark. Soybean plants respond to changes in day length during the period from emergence until the end of mass flowering. The reaction of varieties in photoperiodism is closely related to the period of vegetation. Ripening varieties less responsive to day length than the middle-and late-especially.

Soya - photophilous plant does not tolerate shade. In shaded plants the nitrogen content decreases, an increasing number abortiruemyh fruits, reduced height of attachment of the pods on the stalk, which leads to an increase in losses during mechanical harvesting. Illumination is controlled by changing the area of plant nutrition.

As plant monsoon climate on the formation of soybean seeds consumes much more water than grain crops. The total consumption of water during the growing season reaches 5-6 thousand m3/ha. During the growing season water requirement varies. During germination and swelling of the seeds absorb water to 110-160% dry weight of them. From germination to flowering, a smaller demand for water. The most intensive water use occurs in the flowering stage and forming pods. During this period, soy consumes 60-70% of the total consumption of water during the growing season. Most of the varieties to bloom resistant to drought during flowering and later drought resistance decreases. Transpiration coefficient ranges from 400 to 1000. The optimum soil moisture during the growing season should be at least 70-80% of field capacity.

The formation of 1 ton of soybean seeds consumes 84 kg of nitrogen, 23 kg phosphorus and 37 kg of potassium. Total removal of the battery depends on the aboveground part of the soybean yield and seed yield of 3.3 tons / hectare is 250 kg nitrogen, 63 kg phosphorus and 101 kg of potassium. Soybeans uneven consume nutrients during the growing season. From germination to flowering, it assimilates 5,9-6,8% of nitrogen, phosphorus and 4,6-4,7% 7,6-9,4% potassium from the total consumption during the growing season. The highest intake of nutrients occurs during flowering, formation of beans, start pouring in the seeds. During this period, she consumes respectively 57,9-59,7% 59,4-64,7 66,0-70,0% and, from the beginning of seed filling to the end of ripening - 33,7-36,3, 30, 6-36,0% and 18,9-26,4%, respectively. Nitrogen nutrition in the critical period for soybean - 2-3 weeks to bloom and 2 weeks after flowering in the phosphorus nutrition - the first month of her life. Lack of nutrients in these periods leads to a marked decrease in soybean yield and can not be compensated by fertilizer application in the later phases of plant growth and development.

requirements for soils. Soybean grows well on different-textured soils: sandy loam, chernozem, chestnut soil and loam. Not tolerate waterlogged, saline and acidic soils. Soils with a pH above 9.0 and below 3.9 are not suitable for this crop.

Features rotation. To the best precursors of soybean in many areas of its growing green manure include pairs, formation and turnover of perennial grasses, grains and crops, going on the net and engaged couples, as well as row crops (corn, potatoes, sugar beets, sweet potatoes, etc.). Do not grow soybeans after Sudan grass and sunflower seeds, do not recommend it be placed after the corn, which were made under the herbicides atrazine and simazine.

soybean crop does not tolerate repeated, as is «pochvoutomlenie," with sprouted seeds rot, killed seedlings, reduced size and activity of the symbiotic system, as well as heavily littered the field, collected and distributed by pests and diseases. Optimal saturation soybean crop rotation - from 22 to 40%. In order to avoid the negative impact of repeated crop soybean yields to recommend her to return to the field no earlier than 4 years. In South-East Asia, soybeans - the main precursor for rice, African millet. In the subtropical zone of the United States alternate to corn, sorghum or wheat.

Fertilizers. Macro-and micro-fertilizers in soybean have a significant impact on physiological processes and nitrogen fixing capacity of plants. If you make them to consider the biological peculiarities of sorts, as well as soil reserves of nutrients. High doses of nitrogen fertilizer completely suppress the symbiosis with rhizobia, but the soybean harvest due to increased mineral nitrogen. The summarized results of many experiments show the effectiveness of complete fertilizer. Soybean responds well and organic fertilizers. The greatest efficiency of fertilizer is provided at a fractional their introduction. Phosphate and potash fertilizers should be made the main plowing and the sowing in rows. Nitrogen - a presowing cultivation and fertilizer - in the shoot stage, and during the formation of beans.

Presowing event. During the primary and tillage destroy the weeds, fight diseases and pests, accumulate and retain moisture in the soil, reduce density and improve water and physical properties that line the surface of the soil.

primary tillage in subtropical areas include shallow plowing and deep fall (deep autumn) plowing. On weedy soil spend 3.2 peeling, whose depth varies from 6 to 12 cm Soybean responds well to deep plowing, and it should be done to a depth of 23 to 30 cm in areas littered with weeds that form offshoots, effective layered double entry plowing, the first to a depth of 16-18 cm, second - up to 30 cm tillage includes harrowing early spring to close the water and 2-3 cultivated. The first cultivation is carried out at a depth of 8-12 cm, pre - to a depth of seed placement.

sowing / planting. Seeded soybeans only conditioning for germination and purity of seeds. Sowing the seed plots carried seeds of class I, in common crops - not less than Class II. A month before sowing the seeds of etched with 80% wettable powders TMTD 3-4 kg / t of seed or 65%-s feniturama wettable powders of 4-6 kg / tonne of the drug.

Soya - the culture of the late sowing. In the subtropical zone of optimal sowing period begins with a steady warming of the upper (0-5 cm) soil layer up to 14-16 ° C. Phenological indicator of this period is the flowering apple trees.

In tropical areas, sowing depends mainly on rainfall. Soybean varieties with a long period of vegetation planted in the beginning of the rainy season, early maturing and more - in the middle or end of the rainy season. With irrigation, soybean sown at the beginning of the dry season.

Soya - a tilled crop, the seeds it has been cultivated in wide mode (row spacing from 45 to 100 cm, stand density of plants from 150 to 500 thousand to 1 ha). Timely and friendly shoots obtained by seeding at a depth of 3 to 5 cm

Care sowing / planting. Soybeans in the beginning of vegetation grows relatively slowly, and weeds are successfully competing with her in the consumption of water, nutrients, using light. Crop losses from weeds are 30-50%.

for weed control applied pre-emergence and postemergence harrowing. First performed 3-5 days after sowing in both directions along the diagonal section, the second - during the formation of a soy leaves 1-3 of the present. Dates of row cultivation, and their number depends on the emergence of weeds. During the growing season is usually carried out between 2 and 4 row cultivation. The latter is carried out not later than budding. Herbicides - an indispensable element of modern technology of cultivation of soy. During the growing season to deal with different kinds of moths, leaf beetles soybean crop soybeans treated with 30%-wettable powders Metaphos - 1.5 kg / ha. To combat the caterpillars of the beet webworm crops are sprayed with 80% wettable powder at the rate of 1.5-2 chlorophos kg / ha.

Depending on soil moisture reserves and the amount of falling precipitation during the growing season irrigation norms for soybean ranged from 1000 to 3500 m3/ha. In the initial period of growth of soybean plants is usually enough soil moisture reserve. The deficit arises in it during flowering - seed filling. Vegetation irrigation moisture of the upper 40-60-cm layer of soil must be maintained at no less than 70% of field capacity (HB) before flowering and at least 80% of the HB at a critical time - flowering - seed filling.

Harvesting. Soybeans begin to clean up at full ripeness, when legumes pobureyut the seeds in them harden, and the leaves of most varieties fall off. While soybeans and are not prone to cracking, late harvesting leads to large losses. To speed up the harvesting of plants, obtain seeds with high commodity sowing qualities of pre-harvest drying method developed by plants (desiccation) with chemicals. Desiccation is carried out for 10-12 days before harvest, resulting in artificially terminated vital functions of plants and seed moisture is reduced from 30 to 15%.

Soy in grain harvested when seed moisture of 14-16%, as a rule, single-phase method. To obtain low-cut harvester equipped with special cams. To reduce the fragmentation of seed threshing machine drum rotational speed is reduced to 500-600 r / min at a humidity above 12% seed and 300-400 rev / min - at a lower humidity. Harvesters, converted to a low cut, subject to these regimes can reduce the loss of seeds to 3-4%, and their split - up to 2-3%.

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