Mustard quickly rises and growing rapidly. Can grow in any soil with a pH from very acidic to alkaline. The seeds germinate at a temperature of -3 ° C. Seedlings can withstand brief frosts down to -5 ° C. Herbage mow when the leaves of the plant fresh, juicy, it's better to mass flowering, as at harvest in later periods will begin to wither away leaves and organic matter decline, and the matured seeds are clogging up the flower bed. The average period from planting to seal the mustard in the soil is 55-70 days (8-10 weeks). It is better to patch up a little soil or prikopat and by autumn all already peregniet.
Mustard can be of great help and significantly reduce or even prevent these negative processes of wind and water erosion, especially at a time when the harvest had already been removed and the soil open to erosion.
Mustard - one of the most used by man as olive plants. Its culture is represented by three species: white, blue-gray (sareptana, or Indian) and black. They share many morphological and biological characteristics, and species differences associated with different conditions of cultivation and origin.
Systematics. All three species belong to the genus Brassica L, which consists of more than 150 species of annual and perennial, cultivated and wild.
White mustard (Brassica alba Robenhorst, Sinapis alba L) (left), the cabbage family (Brassicaceae).
Origin. It comes from the Mediterranean, whence it spread almost all countries of the northern hemisphere, in America, Japan and India. In India, white mustard are grown as garden culture in the north, its young leaves are used as vegetables in the winter season, industry is not important. In Sanskrit white mustard is called "warming", "destroying the leprosy."
Distribution. In Russia, the white mustard was first reported in the Lower Volga region in the XVIII century. But there has not been spread. White mustard sown in the USSR, mainly for feed use in the non-chernozem zone. Within a short period generates 20-30 tons / ha of green material used for animal feed or as green manure.
Use. White mustard is a different use - to get fat oil, as a fodder plant in the green form as a plant for green manure, a good honey plant.
Biological features. The plant is a long day, cold-resistant and water-loving. The oil content in seeds is 30-40%, high oil eating dignity poluvysyhayuschee (iodine number 92-122), golden-yellow color, well maintained. Used in food directly to the production of margarine in baking and confectionery industry.
Description of the plant. White mustard - a plant-type spring. Stem branched, 30-75 cm high, covered, like leaves, stiff hairs. Inflorescence racemose, many-flowered (25-100 flowers) with a strong honey scent. Cross-pollinated plant. Fruit - pod, 2-4 cm long, ending in a broad xiphoid tip, covered with stiff hairs, does not crack. Globular seeds (4-7 in a pod) has a diameter of 1.5-2 mm, yellow or cream color, with a smooth surface. Weight of 1000 seeds - 4-6 grams, larger than those of mustard mew.