LEN - LINUM USITATISSIMUM
There are two uses of flax - for fiber (flax) and oil (flax oil seed). In European countries, flax is grown primarily for fiber. Obtained when the seeds are used for the reproduction of plants (as in fiber) and for extraction of oil as a by-product in this case.
Widely cultivated flax for oil. In contrast, sunflower and other crops from seeds which are edible oil, flax seed oil provide high quality technical, widely used in various industries - paint, leather and footwear, soap, paper, etc. With a quick property vysyhaemosti (iodine number 170 -200), linseed oil is best for the preparation of varnishes, lacquers and printing inks.
Planting acreage of flax in the world are about 2 million hectares, and linseed - more than 7 million hectares. In the USSR there are about 75% of the global area of flax spinning. Flax fiber is used for making a variety of fabrics - from coarse bag and packaging to fine cambric and lace.
"The purest of plants, one of the best fruits of the earth" - that characterized the county Roman historians. Technical fabrics of flax fibers are used in automotive, aerospace, rubber, footwear and many other industries. Linen fabrics and products from them are very strong and beautiful. They are well resist rotting and slowly wear down. When the humidity increases the strength of linen cloth, which is very important in a technical environment. Flax yarn is much stronger than cotton and wool, is inferior in this respect only silk and ramie.
Origin. Len - the oldest spinning and oil plant. In India and China, flax was introduced into culture earlier than cotton.
Ancient monuments of Egypt show that there is production of linen fabrics reached great perfection, manufactured goods and fisheries: the sails, nets, ropes.
Slavs borrowed linen from the Greeks. The words "Lion" (Greek) and "Linum" (Latin) form the basis of the Russian - "Flax".
The origin of Linum usitatissimum L. not determined. It is assumed that he could have come from wild species of narrow-leaved - Linum angustifolium Huds., Which is found in the Mediterranean. It is assumed that they could be two geographical groups: flaxes spinning in the most ancient centers of crop in Turkey, Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Italy and Greece, olive flaxes - South-West Asia, including parts of the Soviet Union (Central Asia), Afghanistan and India.
India is one of the primary centers of distribution of flax.
Distribution. The range covers almost all the cultures of the world. Its southern boundary is located in the tropics (the island of Java), and lies on the northern 66 °. w.
Systematics. Genus Linum flax family (Linaseae) includes about 250 species.
Biological features. I kind of cultural Linum usitatissimum L. there is an enormous number of forms. These forms are classified differently by researchers. In practice there are four important groups of species: flax, mezheumki, Kudryashov, creeping flaxes.
Flax - tall plant with a direct straight-line 60-175-centimeter stem only from the top forming a few branches. 2.3 on the plant box. It is cultivated mainly for fiber. From the technical part of the stems are 26-31% fiber.
Fruit - round or ovoid capsule, pointed at the top, has 5 full and 5 partial partitions. Thus, in five nests found on the 2 seed, and a total of 10. The seeds are flat, brown (sometimes yellow), ovate, with beak beak, smooth and shiny. Weight of 1,000 seeds ranges from 3 to 13 g. The swelling of the seeds absorb water from 100-180% of its mass and osliznyayutsya.
Flax - self-pollinating plant. Phases of development differ from other plants: shoots, the phase of "Christmas trees", budding, flowering, ripening. Vegetation period of 85-90 days of flax. In the harvest of flax 75-80% accounted for stems, 10-12% of the seeds and chaff are 10-12% and other wastes.
Bast fibers are located in the cortex of the stem in the form of strands (bundles) or as a solid cylinder. The length of a single elementary fiber of 40-60 mm (120 mm), diameter of 20-30 microns. The number of fibers in the bundle of 10-50, while the number of bundles in the stem 20-40.
In the middle of the stem fiber content increases to 35%. This is the most valuable, delicate, strong and long fiber, with the smallest cavity inside and thick walls. The upper part of the amount of fiber is reduced to 28-30%, and reduced quality of.
Best of the stem diameter of 1-2 mm with a total length of 80-100 cm it and more. Smoother than the diameter of the stem, the greater the yield of long fiber. The quality of the fiber used for the yarn is determined by its number. Number represents the number of fiber skeins of a certain length, obtained from a unit mass of fiber. The average quality index fiber is 12-15, best - 25-36.
Periods of harvesting flax determine, depending on the goals of a culture. Linen, decorated in green stage of maturity, reduced crop yields are not very strong, but thin shiny fibers, suitable for the manufacture of thin articles (lace, cambric). At harvest ripeness in the phase of seed fibers are soft, silky and strong enough. Seeds but not fully ripe, but when drying time to ripen and are suitable for planting.
In the phase of maturity, yellow stem fibers in the lower part begins coarsen (woody). In the event of full ripeness in a little box seeds by shaking roar. The fiber has become overripe, loses elasticity and becomes hard, dry.
When used for fiber flax harvested in the phase rannezheltoy maturity, the seed plots - in yellow. Cleaning or are lnoterebilkami lnokombaynami. Cleaned and sorted the seeds stored at moisture content less than 11-12%.
Obtained after threshing straw should be divided into 2-3 grade for uniformity of length, thickness, color, and sent to the lobe or Dist.
In production use dew or water lobe of flax, at factories - heat and chemical treatment of the lobe in alkaline solution (straw into a product of primary processing - to the trust) or machining, with the separation of bast, and then getting a clean fiber. The yield of pure fiber is 15% or more by weight of straw, or 20% or more by weight of trusts.
The most important form of oilseed flax is mezheumok, oil content in seeds of 33-40%. The highest oil content (up to 46-48%) have the seeds of flax from mountainous areas of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Armenia.
By the heat flax oil seed more demanding than flax, especially during ripening. Requirements differ linseed and moisture: flax relatively drought resistant and tolerates moisture deficiency before flowering. Flax oil seed in moving from south to north during the growing season lengthens. Thus, the attempt to introduce in India varieties of flax, introduced from the USSR, USA, Morocco, Argentina, Australia, Egypt, was unsuccessful.
Flaxes-Kudryash plant height, number of stems per plant, branching, number, shape and size of boxes is very diverse. Oilseed flax can be cultivated in different soils. Favorable to him all kinds of chernozem and chestnut soils with well-defined structure. Heavy, intermittent soil, easily forming a crust that is less suitable for sowing flax.
The best place for growing linseed - deposits and virgin soil. Good precursors are cereals, legumes, melons, corn and other row crops. Return of flax in its place earlier than in 5-6 years is not desirable. Cultivated flax oil seed mainly in pure form and less in the mixture (in India) with beans, mung bean, coriander, peanut varieties maturing.
In soil under oilseed flax special attention should be paid to weed control. In the fields, clean from weeds, if deep plowing in the previous years can restrict surface soil treatment. Preplant treatment should be aimed at preserving moisture and loosening the topsoil. Len is very picky about the stock of nutrients in the soil. Phosphate and potash fertilizers is better to make a basic soil cultivation. Revisions to the rows at sowing superphosphate 100 kg / ha of seed yields increase to 0.3 t / ha.
Oilseed flax sown closed drills, cross, or the usual way with the ordinary rate of sowing 40-60 kg / ha. With wide-seeding rate of 20-30 kg / ha. Seeding depth of 4-6 cm.
In areas where the straw of flax fiber to not use, produce cleaning combines low-cut, at the beginning of full ripeness. In bilateral use of oilseed flax plucked a yellow ripening phase, followed by ripening seed stalks and threshing them lnomolotilkah. Short fiber used to make paper. Straw yield within 4.0 tons / ha of seed-1,0-2, 0 t / ha.
In India, cultivation of flax is about 14% of the global area of its cultivation. Flax oil seed represented here a wide variety of forms. Industrial classification is based on the Indian flax seed color and size. The color of the seeds emit a form of yellow-and korichnevosemyannye. Weight of 1000 seeds reaches 9,6-10,2 g.
In Argentina, the flax is grown for its fiber for the production of lace, muslin or other fine fabrics. There is a culture of flax seeds only (oil flax). Varieties of oilseed flax in the country have growing season 135-140 days, the oil content of 40%, iodine number 178.