Mustard blue-gray, sareptana, or Indian, - Brassica juncea (L.), Czern
Origin. Homeland mustard mew - East China, where it is cultivated plant was obtained by selecting the best forms of "savages". From China, she moved to India, where he is one of the primary centers of cultivation of this crop.
Mustard quickly rises and growing rapidly. Can grow in any soil with a pH from very acidic to alkaline. The seeds germinate at a temperature of -3 ° C. Seedlings can withstand brief frosts down to -5 ° C. Herbage mow when the leaves of the plant fresh, juicy, it's better to mass flowering, as at harvest in later periods will begin to wither away leaves and organic matter decline, and the matured seeds are clogging up the flower bed. The average period from planting to seal the mustard in the soil is 55-70 days (8-10 weeks). It is better to patch up a little soil or prikopat and by autumn all already peregniet.
Distribution. At present, apart from India is cultivated in China, Egypt and several other countries. Introduction mustard mew in culture has been relatively recent. Its Russian name of the mustard sareptana received from the settlement of Sarepta in the Volga region. It appeared first in Russia mustard plant. The city was founded in 1765 by immigrants from Germany at the invitation of Catherine II. Currently, Sarepta - a district of Volgograd. Sareptana mustard was considered the best in the world.
Currently, mustard sareptana - the most common in our country from oil-bearing crop plants cabbage family (Cruciferous), it ranks fourth after sunflower, soybean and linseed. The average yield of seeds - 1.2-1.5 t / ha, high - 1.5-2.0 t / ha.
Use. The seeds contain 23-47% oil (iodine number 92-119). After heating the oil has high taste qualities and is used in confectionery and baking industry for making pastry in the tin, margarine, soap and pharmaceutical industries. Derived from the seeds of the essential oils are used in cosmetics and perfumes.
During the processing of mustard seeds about 95% by weight is useful products. Of the 100 kg mustard seeds conditioned medium quality can be obtained (kg): mustard oil edible - 23-24, mustard oil to produce mustard ether - 5, bagasse to produce mustard powder - 50 cake for cattle feed - 15, husks for fuel - 2.5. The oil is obtained by pressing or extraction.
The good properties of the oil obtained by cold pressing. In hot pressing of oil goes mustard essential oil (0,1-1,7%) and the glycoside sinigrin, which has a pungent smell and taste bad. Of cake prepared powder for mustard and mustard plasters. According to experts, consisting of edible oil should be at least 80% oleic and linoleic acids, not more than 4% linolenic acid and 5 to 15% palmitic and stearic acid, but should be absent completely erucic acid and eykozenovaya.
Description of the plant. Mustard blue-gray - an annual, spring-type plant. Stem 30-75 cm tall, branching, covered with wax (glaucous) sing, with or without hairs. The root system is pivotal, well-developed, penetrates to a depth of 2 m W, which accounts for its drought tolerance.
Lower leaves stalked plants, pubescence, pinnatisect, upper - sessile or short-petiolate, linear, sometimes slightly jagged. Leaf color is green, dark green, with anthocyanin, most varieties are covered with a bluish bloom.
The flowers are bright yellow, the pods are linear, 2,5-5,5 cm long, with slender subulate beak, the seeds are small, spherical, brown, smooth. Weight of 1000 seeds - 2-4g. Considered to be cross-pollinated plants, but is widespread and self-pollination. The plant is a long day. Culture is represented by regional ecotypes, due to its wide geographical spread.
Artificial (mutant) is a valuable form of mustard obtained in Sweden. In our country, are represented widely profiled.
Origin. In India, mustard sareptana form, or India, known as mustard paradise. Mustard and rape-sarzon cultivated in the country since Harappa (3-2nd millennium BC. E..) The seeds of these species are used in medicine and in religious ceremonies. In crops, there are two forms of paradise - one tall, late-and second - a short, early maturing. The usual field crops for the states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and some other parts of the country. Seeded mustard alone or in conjunction with chickpea, pea and barley. Norma sowing to 9 kg / ha at sowing and the joint is 2 times higher in net. Cultivated forms contain the seeds of 30-38% oil. Yield of seeds 0.8-1.5 t / ha.
In India, black mustard species - Brassica nigra (L) Koch (left) - known as the paradise of Benares, is common in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu. Introduced into the culture is relatively new and is cultivated as a cold-resistant culture in limited spaces. The seeds are used for a variety of spices. It is considered best for preparation of mustard powder.
origin. Black mustard is one of the oldest cultivated plants in Europe. It is now known in many countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia. From the seeds are prepared not only mustard differing severity, but also an oil and apply it to medicine. In our country as a medicinal plant grown in the Ukraine.
Description of the plant. Black mustard plant is smooth or hairy at the bottom of the stem, green with anthocyanin in the axils of the lateral branches. Fruit - pod, 1-2 cm long, 4-faced, lumpy. Seeds are small, the mass of 1000 seeds - 1,1-2,3 g of reddish-brown color, contain 31-33% of vegetable and about 1% essential oil of mustard.
Use. The oil has a brownish-yellow color, the smell reminds rape. When ripe, the pod "explode", and the seeds fall off, creating a loss in yield. The average yield of seeds 0.6-1.0 t / ha.