Large-wholesale plant seeds of agricultural products and for agricultural

Rape

An annual herb of the family Cruciferae. Formative erect, strongly branched, finely striate stems, reaching a height of 90 - 100 cm and a strong root system rod type, press oneself into the soil up to 2 m. The main distribution in western Siberia was spring oilseed rape.

In relation to the temperature of cold-resistant oilseed rape culture, which shoots tolerate frosts down to - 3 - 50C, and mature plants - to - 7 - 8 0C, while it may vegetate at 2 - 30C, which allows the sow culture in a wide range, from early spring until early September. However, the main requirement is adequate soil moisture. That is to plant canola moisture gives special importance, especially during flowering and early ripening.

by biochemical indicators of spring rape belongs to the best food plants, one quintal of green mass which contains on average 15 - 18 k.ed. Capacity of gross harvest of seeds contributes to the solution of two problems: providing the population with food energy (oil) and animal feed protein. In addition, canola wonderful bee plant, flowering during which bees from 1 ha can collect more than 100 kilograms of honey. Moreover, late sowing of this crop of honey can provide bribes to late autumn.

Use of this culture in ecological agriculture as a major component of vegetation is of paramount importance. The root system of the culture involved in the processes linking soil nitrogen, preventing erosion and salinity, as well as structuring the soil, thus ensuring its loosening. In addition, after the harvest of culture in the soil is about 5 tons of root and crop residues on nutrient that exceed 15 tons of compost. If you are using culture as a green manure, this figure rises to almost two. It is also necessary to pay attention to the fact that this culture is one of the few able to translate the available forms of phosphorus is difficult, in a simple, affordable subsequent crops. Of great importance is rape and phytosanitary plant as well as suppresses some soil patagenov, and in particular root rot.

In farming canola relatively undemanding. Not picky about the predecessors. As a primary treatment for deep loosening it or recommend plowing.

use. In seeds of oilseed rape contains on average 44% oil (winter forms - 45-50%, spring - 32-35%). Canola oil poluvysyhayuschy (iodine number 94-117}, its use and manufacture of margarine, used in metallurgy, paint, chemical and other industries.

Rapeseed meal contains up to 37% protein and 10% fat, 1 kg cake estimated a food. units. In addition to the marked rape - a valuable culture when grown for green fodder and grazing.

testing varieties of spring oilseed rape have shown that in our country where the frost-free period is 105-110 days, it can be successfully cultivated as oilseed crop with high yield of protein for livestock.

origin. Is the result of natural mating of cabbage leaf and field. Although rape is known as oil-bearing crop for thousands of years, till it began quite recently. Currently, rape - the main oil crops in 28 countries, and interest in it continues to grow.

Distribution. The largest plantings are in India, China, Pakistan, Canada, Chile, Mexico, Poland, France, GDR, Sweden. Homeland rape - the Mediterranean, but the culture of rape in the most remote times is most common in India. Then, obviously, the English and Dutch colonists brought the seeds of oilseed rape in Europe. Large-wholesale plant seeds of agricultural products and for agricultural

Systematics. Canola oil seed (Brassica napus L. ssp. Oleifera Metzg.), The cabbage family (Brassicaceae). In the wild unknown. Presented in two forms of culture - winter (biennis) and spring (annua). In Russia, mainly cultivated varieties of winter.

Rape winter more demanding climate, frost it is low (minus 8-10 ° C). Rape spring (colza), less demanding growing conditions, but inferior to winter forms of yield and oil content.

description of the plant. Rape - The annual winter or a spring plant, the plant root system is well developed. Stem erect, round, branched, covered with a waxy bloom, bluish-green or bluish-violet (cabbage), coloring, 100-130 cm tall.

Leaves outlet lyrate-pinnatifid, upper oblong-lanceolate with an expanded base covering the stem. Flowers yellow, in racemose inflorescence. Fruit - narrow pod 5-10 cm long, at maturity crack. Seeds globose-spherical, black, gray-black, reddish or light brown. Weight of 1000 seeds - 3-7 grams (usually 5,2-5,3 g). Mostly self-pollination, but may cross-pollinated. A good bee plant.

previously hindered the expansion of rape sowings lack of high-yielding varieties, especially with low erucic acid and glikozinolatov (sulfur compounds).

currently breeding work aimed at creating varieties with a high percentage of linoleic acid and linolenic low (up to 5 or less). Scientists believe the desired ratio of linoleic and linolenic acids 3-4:1.

Breeders pay much attention to farming techniques and plant rapeseed. For example, in Germany the task of medium-and Middle-get varieties of oilseed rape plants with a height of 130 cm (at the present time the plant height 180 cm), having from 6 flowering shoots off from the stems at a height of 80 cm, an average of 54 pods with 27 seeds each (weight 5 g) and seed yield 3.64 t / ha. It is believed that such plants are resistant to lodging, is less affected diseases are more evenly blossom and mature, are more suitable for mechanical harvesting.

work in the field of selection is carried out in three directions:

- the creation of highly varieties of food use, mainly for the margarine industry, with a low content of linolenic and erucic acids;

- the creation of grades for technical use, which allowed the high content of erucic acid in oil;

- creation of high-yielding varieties of food rich in proteins in the green mass with a low content of mustard oil glucosides.

Features rotation. Technology of cultivation of oilseed rape cultivation technologies similar to wheat. In rotation, it is placed on the pairs (after potatoes and herbs) and introduce high standards of organic and mineral fertilizers. On winter rape seed (in the temperate zone) are sown in the autumn, and for green mass - in the fall, early spring and summer.

sowing / planting. Methods of sowing - sowing in the usual series 4-12 kg / ha and in wide aisles with 45-60 cm, the rate of planting - 4-8 kg / ha.

Harvesting. Cleaning rape requires special attention because its pods burst and the seeds fall off. For winter oilseed rape using one-and two-phase cleaning. Spring canola harvested direct harvesting. After harvesting and refining seeds stored at moisture content 8-9%.

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