SEEDING Coriander (coriander)
The origin and distribution. Homeland Mediterranean plants. Imported by the Romans in Britain coriander caught there, and then circulated throughout Europe.
The botanical characteristics. Coriander (Coriand-rum sativum L.) - an annual herbaceous plant of Celery (Apiaceae). Taproot penetrates the soil up to 1.5 m. The stem is cylindrical, naked, melkorebristy, straight or curved, geniculate, sometimes with anthocyanin coloration, silnovetvisty, height about 120 cm Location leaves on the stem is alternate. Lower - ranouvyadayuschie. Basal leaves on long stalks. Lower stem - are short, upper - sessile, vaginal. The flowers are white or pink, rarely cream or pale purple, bisexual, pyatilepestnye, collected in four to six-beam inflorescence - cyme. Calyx with increasing-noostnaya, pyatizubchatym, the two outside teeth longer than the three inner ones. Outer petals marginal flowers umbrella enlarged internal - short, stamens five; pestle with a forked stigma, lower dvuhgnezdnoy ovary. The main stem ends with a central umbrella shoots - the first, second order, etc. Flowering begins with a central umbrella. Shoots at various levels of the same plants of similar orders of umbrellas bloom at the same time. Fruit - spherical or dvusemyanki round-elongated shape with a diameter of 2-7 mm. Weight of 1000 seeds - 5-7
Biological features. Coriander demanding lighting. On the shaded areas is delayed maturation of seeds, reduced yield and essential oil content. Frost resistance is high. Seeds germinate at 8-10 ° C. The vegetation period in the European part of the USSR is 100-125 days, in Western Siberia - 108 - 130, in the Kuban-114-123 days. The duration of the main phases of development of the next coriander (days): sowing - sprouting - 15-20; shoots - shooting - 35-40; shooting - flowering - 16-20; flowering - fruit formation, 13-18; fruit formation, maturation-21-22. The plant is drought-resistant, but in the first stage of its development, as well as during fruit set in the moisture demand is high. Coriander demanding soils. Good results are obtained on the loose, well-permeable, rich in nutrients the soil. Heavy clay soils are unsuitable.
The plant is responsive to fertilizers, especially phosphorus and nitrogen.
Reproduction and agricultural technology. Propagated by seed. The best precursors - winter, row crops and perennial grasses. Tillage begins with stubble stubble to a depth of 6-8 cm (the predecessor immediately after harvesting). Plowing to a depth of 25-27 spend see under her are making superphosphate - 400-500 kg / ha, potassium salt - ammonium sulfate, and 150-200 - 100-150 kg / ha.
Method of sowing - in wide aisles with 45 cm in area and sufficient moisture to clean weeds from fields, can be continuous. Sown in early spring or late fall. Winter sowing crop yields twice as much compared with summer. The seeds are buried to a depth of 3-4 cm Sowing - 10-15 kg / ha.
If you are caring for crops drew particular attention to weed control. Used for this dovsho-and post-dovoe harrowing harrows light and medium type. On the wide-sown seedlings with the advent of conduct between the rows Sharovka a depth of 4-5 cm, then two, cultivation of weeds as they appear.
The plant is affected ramulyariozom, powdery mildew and aphids damaged, bugs, moths and other umbrella
Recognized varieties of amber, Early and Kirovograd.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials. The fruits ripen on the plant for different times, are prone to shattering. Therefore, crop harvested when the fruit pobureyut to 40%, and the stalk is still wet. Beveled coriander matures in rolls and four or five days at a humidity of 15-16% of the fruit harvester threshed. The seeds are dried under an awning, cleaned of impurities and file with the procurement centers. Because the fruits are easily damaged by pests, they are stored in airtight containers. If coriander is grown in small areas, after-skashiva of his associate in bundles and left on site for the maturation and drying. Yield of fruit is 0.8-1.2 t / ha.
Medicinal properties. Coriander contains vitamins A and C. It is used as a choleretic, analgesic, antiseptic, anti gemorroynogo, extraordinary means. In Indian medicine, the seeds of plants used as a diuretic, stomachic and tonic.
Application. Ripe coriander contain essential oils and fat (2 and 25%), hydrazoic extractives, starch, sugar, etc. The essential oil is the starting material for linalool, citral and other derivatives used in the manufacture of perfumes and medicines. Fatty oil used in soap and textile industries. From it are oleic acid. Pomace is fed to livestock.
In the food industry coriander seeds flavored bread, biscuits, sausages, fish and canned vegetables. In cooking, use the leaves, which we called "cilantro" and seeds.
Cuisines of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, the Caucasus without coriander and is impossible to imagine. Coriander is added to vegetable, meat, chicken dishes, as well as in milk and milk soups. Famous Eastern pickles and marinades also can not do without coriander. And in Uzbekistan for the use of seeds, in Azerbaijan and Armenia - the greens. Coriander - a component of the Abkhaz spices - adzhika and Georgian sauces - satsibeli, tkemali, cornel, etc.
Abroad, the most popular uses coriander in India, where greenery is served cold as an appetizer or as a condiment to the main courses. The seeds are part of the spice blends - curry. This culture is used in China, Greece, Italy, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and some African countries.
The average rate of bookmarks spices on one dish (g) of seeds, 0, 1, and fresh herbs-5-15, dried, 0.1-0.2.