Yellow alfalfa differs very high winter hardiness, drought resistance, salt-and long-lived species of cultivated alfalfa. In the first year of growing slowly, and slowly grows after mowing. Gives one or two mowing.
Alfalfa yellow color is different from the blue flowers and sickle-shaped pods, smaller seeds. Weight of 1000 seeds - 17g. Can grow in sand, clay and alkaline soils, in contrast to alfalfa seed and volatile.
Floodplain yellow alfalfa ecotypes hygrophilous can withstand flooding for 20-30 days, have a powerful korneotpryskovuyu root system. They are more abundant than the prairie ecotypes, pastbischeustoychivy. Common in the floodplains of the Volga, Don, Dnepr, Ural and Irtysh, Ob, Lena and their tributaries. All yellow alfalfa ecotypes are widely used in hybridizing to create resistant to adverse conditions of high-yielding varieties.
Refers to valuable hay and pasture plants. Hay yield is 12 t / ha in the dry areas of up to 50 kg / ha or more in the flood plain meadows, secured with moisture, the hay crop in the culture reaches 135 kg / ha. 100 kg of hay fed rump contained 57.2, ed. and 5.9 kg of digestible protein. Well eaten by all kinds of livestock. Used to create pasture and hay fields, securing land affected by washout. Introduced into the culture, and derived much of its regionalized varieties. ALFALFA SEEDING - MEDICAGO SATIVA
Use. Alfalfa is very valuable and the most popular in world agriculture, fodder crop. It has a variety of uses: grazing, green fodder, hay, silage, hay and silage flour. Generates high yields. In terms of irrigation for 8-10 mowing gives 80-120 tons of green mass, or 20-40 tons of hay per 1 hectare. Seed productivity of 0,2-1,4 t / ha.
It has high forage qualities. Green mass contains it (in the absolutely dry substance): 18-22% protein, 2,8-4,0% fat, 23-33% cellulose, 32-44% and BEV 9,7-10,6% ash. It contains many essential amino acids, phosphorus (0.24%), calcium (1.49%) and in sufficient numbers almost all the vitamins needed animals. In alfalfa hay, 2.2 kg of feed contains 1. units. Digestibility of nutrients reaches 70-80%. Lucerne has a great impact on soil fertility, enriching it with nitrogen, and contributes to building a strong fine lumpy structure. At the 2-3rd year of life of its plants accumulate nitrogen in the soil for as long as it contains 40-60 tons of manure. It is the best precursor of cotton, cereals and other crops. Effect is manifested in alfalfa for several years. In the thick herbage helps cleanse the fields of weeds.
Origin. Alfalfa - one of the oldest cultures. It is believed that it began to grow at the same time as wheat. Is probably from Central Asia.
Distribution. Currently distributed in 5 continents, more than 80 countries on more than 35 million hectares. It is widely cultivated in all parts of the subtropical and the south temperate zone. The largest acreage is concentrated in the USA, Argentina, USSR, India and the countries of Western Europe.
Systematics. Lucerne (genus Medicago) has more than 60 species. The most widespread planting alfalfa, or blue (Medicago sativa L).
Description of the plant. Spray with tap 50-170 cm tall plant root system with a cylindrical or spindle-shaped main root and strongly developed lateral roots. In the 1st year of life, the roots penetrate to a depth of 2-3 m, and in subsequent years - up to 10-20 m, but the bulk of their weight (60-80%) resides in a layer of soil to 40 cm on the roots are developing nodule bacteria assimilate nitrogen from the air. Under favorable conditions, a three-year alfalfa accumulate up to 300 pounds or more of nitrogen per 1 hectare.
Stems branched, with internodes 10-20, leaf-bearing (50%). In the shrub from 2 to 300 stems.
Leaves trifoliate, leaflets 1-2.5 cm long and 0.3-1.5 cm wide
Inflorescence - many-flowered raceme. Flowers bisexual, blue of varying intensity.
Pods many-seeded, spirally twisted (from 1.5 to 5 turns). Seeds reniform or bean-shaped, yellow, green or brown tint. Weight of 1000 seeds - 1.3-2.7 g.
Biological features. Lucerne - rather thermophilic and photophilous plant. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 18-20 ° C. Good growing and developing at 22-30 ° C. With sufficient moisture, successfully brings the heat (37-42 ° C). Has a relatively high cold. Some varieties can withstand the Mediterranean minus 15 ° C, Soviet varieties with good snow cover - up to minus 25-30 ° C. Sufficiently demanding to moisture and at the same time very drought tolerant. The highest yields of forms in soils with a humidity of 60-80% of full field capacity. With a large amount of precipitation (over 1000 mm per year) is affected with powdery mildew and other diseases, making it a short-lived. A 10-15-day flooding grass sharply reduced harvests. Reduce soil moisture to 45% field capacity causes a significant loss of plants, especially in the 1st year of life. Already under such circumstances it is very moisturizing responds well to watering after each mowing.
In the year of sowing grass first mowing up to flowering in about 50-60 days, and subsequently flowering usually after 30-40 days after each mowing. In lucerne persists 10-25 years or more. Commercial use it more often from 2 to 8 years.
Lucerne features a large varietal diversity. For the duration of its type of vegetation is divided into 4 groups:
1) varieties of subtropical zone, vegetating all year round; p>
2) grade, terminating the growing season in the winter for a short time; p>
3) with an average grade for the period ending the growing season in the winter; p>
4) varieties of the temperate zone, terminating in the winter growing season. p>
Requirements for the soil. Alfalfa grows best on vysokoplodorodnyh, medium, well-drained soils with a pH of 6.5-7.5. Bad can be in heavy clay, rocky, alkaline, waterlogged soils, as well as at a high level of standing water table. On poor sandy soils give high yields only enough for application of organic and mineral fertilizers. Not tolerate acidic soils. At pH 5 almost nodule bacteria do not develop, so the soil should be limed. Can tolerate salinity. However, in growing alfalfa on highly saline soils (pH 8.0 and above) require the use of leaching irrigations.
Features of rotation. To preserve full of seedlings, to ensure good growth and high yields of alfalfa crops is necessary to place it in the fields, well cleared of weeds. One of the best precursors of alfalfa are row crops. In cotton-growing areas on irrigated lands grow alfalfa useful in crop rotation with cotton (usually without a cover) or in joint crops of corn, sorghum, Sudan grass. In non-irrigated areas are good precursors for her cereal, flax oil seed, melons, fodder crops, etc.
Fertilizers. Alfalfa responds well to fertilizer, as the consumption of soil nutrients a lot. Compared with grain bread, it uses 2 times more nitrogen and phosphorus, and 1.5 times more potassium. The main fertilizer is recommended to apply 20-40 tons of manure, 90-150 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O per 1 hectare. Organic fertilizers are generally under the previous culture, and minerals - under cover crops and "alfalfa. In addition, simultaneously with sowing is necessary to apply 10-15 kg P2O5 per 1 hectare. In alkaline soils make plowing 2-4 tons of gypsum per 1 ha . acidic soils should be pre-proizvestkovany. With a lack of molybdenum in soil spend presowing seed molybdenum-ammonium in a dose of 100 grams of the drug at the rate of seed hectare.
Presowing event. Treatment of soil under alfalfa includes plowing (preferably to a depth of 25-30 cm or pochvouglubitelem), sometimes plowing, 2-3 disking, or cultivation, prick tyvanie soil before planting and after it in dry areas and make sure the layout of fields in irrigated areas.
Alfalfa seed is partially solid form with the hermetic shell. To enhance germination before planting them scarifying, and dried in the sun for 3-5 days and briefly heated at 48-60 ° C. In the farms or in areas where alfalfa is grown for the first time, you must handle the seeds of alfalfa nitragin (rizotorfinom).
Sowing / planting. Seeded alfalfa at the beginning or middle of the rainy season. Methods of planting - at random, continuous series (the most common), with wide-row-spacing of 40-60 cm, square-cluster (mainly seeds). Sowing in the drill seeding and 14-20 kg at random, and for wide-and square-cluster - 4-8 kg / ha. Seeding depth of 2-3 cm yields good results sowing alfalfa in other crops (cotton, corn, sorghum) for 1-2 months before harvesting. In cotton growing alfalfa seeded in the middle of its growing season after a thorough soil between the rows and rows.
To obtain high and stable yields of green mass and hay, especially on pasture, soil conservation and erosion control for purposes appropriate to sow alfalfa in mixture with cereal grasses and other legumes.
Caring for sowing / planting. If you are caring for alfalfa weed control, disease and pest control, cover crops harvested in a timely manner at a height of not less than 20 cm, spend it on overseeding sparse locations (in the second year of life), posleukosnoe harrowing, disking (in areas of the third and subsequent years of use) , fertilization, cultivation between the rows on wide-fields. In the dressing appropriate to contribute annually in rainfed conditions by 60-90 kg P2O5 and K2O 30-45 kg per 1 ha and under irrigation - respectively, 100-150 and 50-100 kg per 1 hectare. In irrigated areas, compulsory measure of care is watering. Irrigations periods ranging from 5 to 30 days or more, and the rules of one-time watering - from 600 to 1500 m3 (typically 600-800 m 3) with a total consumption of water per year from 3000 to 11 000 m3 per 1 hectare.
Harvesting. On rainfed crops per year are 2.1 mowing, in subsequent years - 2-4, and under irrigation - 7-10 mowing for the year at intervals of between 35-45 days. The best places to mow grass for hay during the full bud - the beginning of flowering. It is recommended to mow at a height of alfalfa 6-8 cm from the soil surface. Cleaning it is conducted by conventional haymaker and Mower Conditioners. To get out of high nutritional value of alfalfa forage and increase the collection of nutrients per unit area of her prepared haylage, grass meal, pellets and briquettes.
If you use alfalfa pasture grazing grass for cattle to be to play off 6-10 times, and sometimes more. With proper care, alfalfa grows rapidly and within 25-30 days it is ready for subsequent grazing. To increase the stability and longevity of alfalfa pasture grazing herbage should alternate with cleaning it for hay.
Seeds of alfalfa seed to grow appropriate crops and can be obtained in plots of forage crops allocated the 2nd and 3rd year of life. Higher seed yields obtained from the first or second mowing. In order to increase seed production at the beginning of flowering recommend driving up the bees to alfalfa fields (from 2 to 8 hives per 1 ha). Cleaning is carried out by two-(at 70-80% browning beans) and direct harvesting (at 90-95% browning beans).
Processing and storage of crops. Svezheobmolochennye seeds are cleaned, dried to a moisture content of 13% and mortgage deposit.